Research paper by Francis Buttle, in European Journal of Marketing. This paper presents a critical review of the world’s most widely used service quality measurement and management model – SERVQUAL SERVQUAL was first published in the mid-1980’s and rapidly became adopted by organisations worldwide. It works on the assumption that customers assess quality of service by comparing their pre-encounter expectations to their perceptions of the service received. Initially composed of 10 components of service quality, later editions of SERVQUAL identified only 5 factors: reliability, assurance, tangibles, empathy and responsiveness. These have become known as the RATER components of service quality. Francis’s research paper is the third most cited EJM paper of all time.